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Philipp Assmy

Research scientist Norwegian Polar InstituteResearch department: ecotoxicology
Work address Norwegian Polar Institute Fram Centre Tromsø 9296 Norway Work Phone: +47 77 75 05 87
Photo of Philipp Assmy

Research interests:

  • Phyto- and protozooplankton ecology
  • Sea ice biology
  • Ocean biogeochemistry in particular carbon and silicon cycles
  • Diatom taxonomy
  • Field experience from the Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean.

Running national and international projects:

  • 2017-2020: Diversity, taxonomy and distribution of marine protists in a changing Arctic (TaxMArc). (RCN project), Co-PI
  • 2015-2019: InterDisciplinary study of Arctic sea ice changes and impacts for the society (ID Arctic). (grant by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Co-PI
  • 2019-2022: Ridges – Safe havens for ice-associated flora and fauna in a seasonally ice-covered Arctic Ocean (HAVOC). (RCN project), Co-PI
  • 2018-2021: Ocean-Air synoptic operations using coordinated autonomous robotic SYStems and micro underwater gliders (OASYS). (MarTERA, ERA-NET Cofund scheme of Horizon 2020 of the European Commission), Co-PI
  • 2017-2023: The Nansen Legacy (RCN project)

Completed national and international projects:

  • N-ICE2015 – Norwegian young sea ICE expedition
    2015-2018: Boom or Bust – Ice-algal and under-ice phytoplankton bloom dynamics in a changing Arctic icescape (RCN project), Main PI
  • 2014-2017: Ecosystem modelling of the Arctic Ocean around Svalbard (ArktisMod). (Fram Centre Flagship “Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, Technology and Systems of Agreement”), Co-PI
  • 2012: Morphological and molecular identification of key phytoplankton species from the Southern Ocean. (European Community – Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 ‘‘Capacities’’ Specific Programme ASSEMBLE (grant no. 227799)), Main PI
  • 2008-2012: Controls on and paleoceanographic utility of the valve size frequency distribution of the Southern Ocean diatom, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (DFG project), Main PI

Relevant scientific publications:

  1. Lannuzel, D., Tedesco, L., van Leeuwe, M., Campbell, K., Flores, H., Delille, B., Miller, L., Stefels J., Castellani, G., Fripiat, F., Steiner, N., Vancoppenolle, M., Vichi M., Assmy, P., Bowman, J., Kaartokallio, H., Meiners, K., Peeken, I., Rintala, J.-M.,Wongpan, P., Brown, K., Chierici, M., Crabeck, O., Damm, E., Else, B., Fransson, A., Geilfus, N.-X., Jacques, C., Jones, E., Kotovitch, M., Moreau, S., Nomura, D., Steiner, N., Tison, J.-L., Van der Linden, F. (accepted) The future of Arctic sea-ice biogeochemistry and ice-associated ecosystems. Nature Climate Change.
  2. Wiedmann, I., Ceballos Romero, E., Alfageme, M.V., Renner, A.H.H., Dybwad, C., van der Jagt, H., Svensen, C., Assmy, P., Wiktor, J.M., Tatarek, A., Różańska-Pluta, M., Iversen, M.H. (2020) Arctic observations identify phytoplankton community composition as driver of particle sinking velocity and carbon flux attenuation. Geophysical Research Letters, 47:14, e2020GL087465, doi: 10.1029/2020GL087465
  3. Ardyna, M., Mundy, C.J., Mills, M.M., Oziel, L., Grondin, P.-L., Lacour, L., Verin, G., van Dijken, G., Ras, J., Alou-Font, E., Babin, M., Gosselin, M., Tremblay, J.-É., Raimbault, P., Assmy, P., Nicolaus, M., Claustre, H., Arrigo, K.R. (2020) Environmental drivers of under-ice phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Arctic Ocean. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 8:30, doi:1525/elementa.430.
  4. Hop H, Vihtakari M, Bluhm BA, Assmy P, Poulin M, Gradinger R, Peeken I, Quillfeldt C, Mork Olsen L, Zhitina L and Melnikov IA (2020) Changes in Sea-Ice Protist Diversity with Declining Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean From the 1980s to 2010s. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7:243, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00243.
  5. Halbach, L., Vihtakari, M., Duarte, P., Everett, A., Hop, H., Kauko, H.M., Kohler, J., Kristiansen, S., Myhre, P.I., Pramanik, A., Steen, H., Sundfjord, A., Wold, A., Wulff, A. and Assmy, P. (2019) Tidewater glaciers and bedrock characteristics shape the phytoplankton growth environment in a fjord in the Arctic. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:254, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00254.
  6. Olsen, L.M., Duarte, P., Peralta-Ferriz, C., Kauko, H.M., Johansson, M., Peeken, I., Różańska-Pluta, M., Tatarek, A., Wiktor, J., Fernández-Méndez, M., Wagner, P.M., Pavlov, A.K., Hop, H. and Assmy, P. (2019) A red tide in the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean. Scientific Reports, 9, 9536; doi: 1038/s41598-019-45935-0.
  7. Graham, R.M., Itkin, P., Meyer, A., Sundfjord, A., Spreen, G., Smedsrud, L.H., Liston, G.E., Cheng, B., Cohen, L., Divine, D., Fer, I., Fransson, A., Gerland, S., Haapala, J., Hudson, S.R., Johansson, M.R., King, J., Merkouriadi, I., Peterson, A.K., Provost, C., Randelhoff, A., Rinke, A., Rösel, A., Sennéchael, N., Walden, V.P., Duarte, P., Assmy, P., Steen, H. and Granskog, M.A. (2019) Winter storms escalate the demise of Arctic sea ice. Scientific Reports, 9, 9222; doi: 1038/s41598-019-45574-5.
  8. Hop, H., Assmy, P., Wold, A., Sundfjord, A., Daase, M., Duarte, P., Kwasniewski, S., Gluchowska, M., Wiktor, J.M., Tatarek, A., WiktorJr., J.M., Kristiansen, S., Fransson, A., Chierici, M. and Vihtakari, M. (2019) Pelagic Ecosystem Characteristics across the Atlantic Water Boundary Current from Rijpfjorden, Svalbard, to the Arctic Ocean During Summer (2010-2014). Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:181, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00181
  9. Kauko, H.M., Pavlov, A.K., Johnsen, G., Granskog, M.A., Peeken, I. and Assmy, P. (2019) Photoacclimation state of an Arctic under-ice phytoplankton bloom. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 124,
  10. Hegseth, E.N., Assmy, P., Wiktor, J.M., Wiktor Jr, J.M., Kristiansen, S., Leu, E., Tverberg, V., Gabrielsen, T.M., Skogseth, R. and Cottier, F. (2019). Phytoplankton seasonal dynamics in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard and the adjacent shelf, In: Advances in Polar Ecology.
  11. de Sousa, A.G.G., Tomasino, M.P., Duarte, P., Fernández-Méndez, M., Assmy, P., Ribeiro, H., Surkont, J., Leite, R., Leal, J.P., Torgo, L., Magalhães, C. (2019) Diversity and Composition of Pelagic Prokaryotic and Protist Communities in a Thin Arctic Sea-Ice Regime. Microbial Ecology. doi:10.1007/s00248-018-01314-2.
  12. Schulz, I., Montresor, M., Klaas, C., Assmy, P., Wolzenburg, S., Gauns, M., Thiele, S., Sarkar, A., Wolf-Gladrow, D., Naqvi, S.W.A., Smetacek, V. (2018) Remarkable structural resistance of a nanoflagellate-dominated plankton community to iron fertilization during the Southern Ocean experiment LOHAFEX. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 601, 77-95.
  13. Krause, J.W., Duarte, C.M., Marquez, I.A., Assmy, P., Fernández-Méndez, M., Wiedmann, I., Wassmann, P., Kristiansen, S. and Agustí, S. (2018) Biogenic silica production and diatom dynamics in the Svalbard region during spring. Biogeosciences, 15, 6503-6517, doi: 10.5194/bg-15-6503-2018.
  14. Kauko, H.M., Olsen, L.M., Duarte, P., Peeken, I., Granskog, M.A., Johnsen, G., Fernández-Méndez, M., Pavlov, A.K., Mundy, C.J., Assmy, P. (2018) Algal colonization of young Arctic sea ice in spring. Frontiers in Marine Science,
  15. Belt, S.T., Brown, T.A., Smik, L., Assmy, P. and Mundy, C.J. (2017) Sterol identification in floating Arctic sea ice algal aggregates and the Antarctic sea ice diatom Berkeleya adeliensis. Organic Geochemistry, 118, 1-3, doi: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2018.01.008.
  16. Fernández-Méndez, M., Olsen, L.M., Kauko, H.M., Meyer, A., Rösel, A., Merkouriadi, I., Mundy, C.J., Ehn, J.K., Johansson, A.M., Wagner, P.A., Ervik, Å., Sorrell, B.K., Duarte, P., Wold, A., Hop, H. and Assmy, P. (2018) Algal hotspots in a changing Arctic Ocean: Sea-ice ridges and the snow-ice interface. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5:75, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00075.
  17. Wollenburg, J.E., Katlein, C., Nehrke, G., Nöthig, E.-M., Matthiessen, J., Wolf-Gladrow, D.A., Nikolopoulos, A., Gazquez-Sanchez, F., Rossmann, L., Assmy, P., Babin, M., Bruyant, F., Dybwad, C. and Peeken I. (2018) Ballasting by cryogenic gypsum enhances carbon export in a Phaeocystis under-ice bloom. Scientific Reports, 8:7703, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26016-0.
  18. van Leeuwe, M., Tedesco, L., Arrigo, K., Assmy, P., Campbell, K., Meiners, K., Rintala, J.-M., Selz, V., Thomas, D. and Stefels, J., (2018) Microalgal biodiversity and primary production in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice: A synthesis. Elementa. 6:4, doi: 10.1525/elementa.267.
    10.  Laglera, L.M., Tovar-Sanchez, A., Iversen, M.H., González, H.E., Naik, H., Assmy, P., Klaas, C., Mazzocchi, G., Montresor, M., Naqvi, S.W.A. and Smetacek V. (2017). Iron cycling during the LOHAFEX iron fertilization experiment in the Southern Ocean, Part I. Iron partitioning. Marine Chemistry, 196, 148-161.
    11.  Brown, T.A., Assmy, P., Hop, H., Wold, A. and Belt, S.T. (2017) Transfer of ice algal carbon to ice-associated amphipods in the high-Arctic pack ice environment. Journal of Plankton Research, 39, 664-674.
    12.  Belt, S.T., Brown, T.A., Smik, L., Tatarek, A., Wiktor, J., Stowasser, G., Assmy, P., Allen, C. and Husum, K. (2017) Identification of C25 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes in diatoms of the genus Rhizosolenia in high latitude marine phytoplankton. Organic Geochemistry, 110, 65-72.
    13.  Duarte, P., Meyer, A., Olsen, L.M., Kauko, H.M., Assmy, P., Rösel, A., Itkin, P., Hudson, S.R., Granskog, M.A., Gerland, S., Sundfjord, A., Steen, H., Hop, H., Peterson, A.K., Jeffery, N., Elliott, S.M., Hunke, E.C., Turner, A.K. (2017). Sea ice thermohaline-dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: empirical and model results. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 122, doi:10.1002/ 2016JG003660.
    14.  Kauko, H.M., Taskjelle, T., Assmy, P., Pavlov, A.K., Mundy, C.J., Duarte, P., Fernández Méndez, M., Olsen, L. M., Hudson, S. R., Johnsen, G., Elliott, A., Wang, F. and Granskog, M. A. (2017). Windows in Arctic sea ice: light transmission and ice algal optical properties in a refrozen lead. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 122, 1486–1505, doi:10.1002/ 2016JG003626.
    15.  Olsen, L.M., Laney, S.R., Duarte, P., Kauko, H.M., Fernández-Méndez, M., Mundy, C.J., Rösel, A., Meyer, A., Itkin, P., Cohen, L., Peeken, I., Tatarek, A., Róźańska, M., Wiktor, J., Taskjelle, T., Pavlov, A.K., Hudson, S.R., Granskog, M.A., Hop, H. and Assmy, P. (2017). The role of multiyear ice in seeding ice algae blooms in the Arctic pack ice. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JG003668.
    16.  Pavlov, A.K., Taskjelle, T., Kauko, H.M., Hamre, B., Hudson, S.R., Assmy, P., Duarte, P., Fernández-Méndez, M., Mundy, C.J., and Granskog, M.A. (2017). Altered inherent optical properties and estimates of the underwater light field during an Arctic under-ice bloom of Phaeocystis pouchetii. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 122, 4939–4961, doi:10.1002/ 2016JC012471.
    17.  Fransson, A., Chierici, M., Skjelvan, I., Olsen, A., Assmy, P., Peterson, A.K., Spreen, G. and Ward, B. (2017). Under-ice fCO2, sea-air CO2 fluxes and effect of storm events and an under-ice phytoplankton bloom on sea-air CO2 fluxes during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 122, doi: 10.1002/2016JC012478
    18.  Assmy, P., Fernández-Méndez, M., Duarte, P., Meyer, A., Randelhoff, A., Mundy, C.J., Olsen, L.M., Kauko, H.M., Bailey, A., Chierici, M., Cohen, L., Doulgeris, A.P., Ehn, J.K., Fransson, A., Gerland, S., Hop, H., Hudson, S.R., Hughes, N., Itkin, P., Johnsen, G., King, J.A., Koch, B.P., Koenig, Z., Kwasniewski, S., Laney, S.R., Nicolaus, M., Pavlov, A.K., Polashenski, C.M., Provost, C., Rösel, A., Sandbu, M., Spreen, G., Smedsrud, L.H., Sundfjord, A., Taskjelle, T., Tatarek, A., Wiktor, J., Wagner, P.M., Wold, A., Steen, H. and Granskog, M.A. (2017). Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice. Scientific Reports, 7, 40850; doi: 10.1038/srep40850.
    19.  Barber, D.G., Hop, H., Mundy, C.J., Else, B., Dmitrenko, I.A., Tremblay, J.-E., Ehn, J.K., Assmy, P., Daase, M., Candlish, L.M. and Rysgaard, S. (2015). Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Sea Ice Zone. Progress in Oceanography, 139, 122-150.
    20.  Leu, E., Mundy, C.J., Assmy, P., Campbell, K., Gabrielsen, T.M., Gosselin, M., Juul-Pedersen, T. and Gradinger, R. (2015). Arctic spring awakening – steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algae blooms. Progress in Oceanography, 139, 151-170.
    21.  Duarte, P., Assmy, P., Hop, H., Spreen, G., Gerland, S. and Hudson, S.R. (2015). Modeling potentials and limitations for estimating production of ice algae in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems, 145, 69-90.
    22.  Thiele, S., Wolf, C., Schulz, I.K., Assmy, P., Metfies, K. and Fuchs, B.M. (2014). Stable composition of the nano- and picoplankton community during the iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX. PLOS ONE, 9(11), e113244.
    23.  Assmy, P., Cisewski, B., Henjes, J., Klaas, C., Montresor, M. and Smetacek, V. (2014). Response of the protozooplankton assemblage during the European Iron Fertilization Experiment (EIFEX) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Journal of Plankton Research, 36(5), 1175-1189.
    24.  Latasa, M., Henjes, J., Scharek, R., Assmy, P., Röttgers, R. and Smetacek, V. (2014). Progressive decoupling between phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing during an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 513, 39-50.
    25.  Ebersbach, F., Assmy, P., Martin, P., Schulz, I.K., Wolzenburg, S., Nöthig, E.-M. (2014). Particle flux characterisation and sedimentation patterns of protistan plankton during the iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part I, 89, 94-103.
    26.  Armbrecht, L.H., Smetacek, V. Assmy, P. and Klaas, C. (2014). Cell death and aggregate formation in the giant diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii (Gran & Angst, 1931). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 452, 31-39.
    27.  Lydersen, C., Assmy, P., Falk-Petersen, S., Kohler, J., Kovacs, K.M., Reigstad, M., Steen, H., Strøm, H., Sundfjord, A., Varpe, Ø., Walczowskic, W., Weslawskic, J.M. and Zajaczkowskic, M. (2014). The importance of glacier fronts for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Marine Systems, 129, 452-471.
    28.  Nomura, D., Granskog, M.A, Assmy, P., Simizu, D. and Hashida, G. (2013). Arctic and Antarctic sea ice acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2 during periods of snow melt and surface flooding. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 118, 1-14, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009048
    29.  Assmy, P., Smetacek, V., Montresor, M., Klaas, C., Henjes, J., Strass, V.H., Arrieta, J.M., Bathmann, U., Berg, G.M., Breitbarth, E., Cisewski, B., Friedrichs, L., Fuchs, N., Herndl, G.J., Jansen, S., Krägefsky, S., Latasa, M., Peeken, I., Röttgers, R., Scharek, R., Schüller, S.S., Steigenberger, S., Webb, A., and Wolf-Gladrow, D. (2013). Thick-shelled, grazer-protected diatoms decouple ocean carbon and silicon cycles in the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(51), 20633-20638, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1309345110.
    30.  Assmy, P., Ehn, J.K., Fernández-Méndez, M., Hop, H., Katlein, C., Sundfjord, A., Bluhm, K., Daase, M., Engel, A., Fransson, A., Granskog, M.A., Hudson, S.R., Kristiansen, S., Nicolaus, M., Peeken, I., Renner, A.H.H., Spreen, G., Tatarek, A. and Wiktor, J. (2013). Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting Arctic sea ice. PLOS ONE, 8(10), e76599.
    31.  Fuchs, N., Scalco, E., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Assmy, P., and Montresor, M. (2013). Genetic characterization and life cycle of the diatom Fragilariopsis kerguelensis. European Journal of Phycology, 48(4), 411-426.
    32.  Nomura, D., Assmy, P., Nehrke, G., Granskog, M.A., Fischer, M., Dieckmann, G.S., Fransson, A., Hu, Y. and Schnetger, B. (2013). Characterization of ikaite (CaCO3 x 6H2O) crystals in first-year Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard. Annals of Glaciology, 54, 125-131.
    33.  Smetacek, V., Klaas, C., Strass, V.H., Assmy, P., Montresor, M., Cisewski, B., Savoye, N., Webb, A., D’Ovidio, F., Arrieta, J.M., Bathmann, U., Bellerby, R., Berg, G.M., Croot, P., Gonzalez, S., Henjes, J., Herndl, G.J., Hoffmann, L.J., Leach, H., Losch, M., Mills, M.M., Neill, C., Peeken, I., Röttgers, R., Sachs, O., Sauter, E., Schmidt, M.M., Schwarz, J., Terbrüggen, A. and Wolf-Gladrow, D. (2012). Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom. Nature, 487, 313-319.
    34.  Leblanc, K., Arıstegui, J., Armand, L., Assmy, P., Beker, B., Bode, A., Breton, E.,  Cornet, V., Gibson, J., Gosselin, M.-P., Kopczynska, E., Marshall, H., Peloquin, J., Piontkovski, S., Poulton, A.J., Queguiner, B., Schiebel, R., Shipe, R., Stefels, J., van Leeuwe, M.A., Varela, M., Widdicombe, C., and Yallop, M. (2012). A global diatom database – abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean. Earth System Science Data Discussions, 4, 149 – 165.
    35.  Ligowski, R., Jordan, R.W. and Assmy, P. (2012). Morphological adaptation of a planktonic diatom to growth in Antarctic sea ice. Marine Biology, 159, 817-827.
    36.  Geibert, W., Assmy, P., Bakker, D.C.E., Hanfland, C., Hoppema, M., Pichevin, L.E., Schröder, M., Schwarz, J.N., Stimac, I., Usbeck, R. and Webb, A. (2010). High productivity in an ice melting hotspot at the eastern boundary of the Weddell Gyre. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24 GB3007, doi:10.1029/2009GB003657 .
    37.  Gaebler-Schwarz, S., Davidson, A., Assmy, P., Chen, J., Henhes, J., Nöthig, E.-M., Lunau, M. and Medlin, L.K. (2010). A new cell stage in the haploid-diploid life cycle of the colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica and its ecological implications. Journal of Phycology, 46(5), 1006-1016.
    38.  Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Sarno, D., Hernandez-Becerril, D.U., Assmy, P., Di Prisco, C. and Montresor, M. (2010). Comparative molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses of taxa in the Chaetocerotaceaea (Bacillariophyta). Phycologia, 49(5), 471-500.
    39.  Assmy, P. and Smetacek, V. (2009). Algal blooms, In: Encyclopedia of Microbiology, (Moselio Schaechter, Editor), Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 27-41.
    40.  Michels, J., Dieckmanna, G.S., Thomas, D.N., Schnack-Schiel, S.B., Krell, a., Assmy, P., Kennedy, H., Papadimitrioub,S., Cisewskia, B. (2008). Short-term biogenic particle flux under late spring sea ice in the western Weddell Sea, Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 1024-1039.
    41.  Assmy, P., Hernandez-Becerril, D.U. and Montresor, M. (2008). Morphological variability and life cycle traits of the type species of the diatom genus Chaetoceros, C. dichaeta. Journal of Phycology, 44, 152-163.
    42.  Henjes, J., Assmy, P. (2008). Particle availability controls agglutination in pelagic tintinnids in the Southern Ocean. Protist, 159, 239-250.
    43.  Assmy, P. (2008). 2nd Neogene Polar Marine Diatom Workshop, 4-10th August 2007, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA or alternatively mutual learning between a plankton ecologist and micropalaeontologists. Diatom Research, 23, 263-265.
    44.  Assmy, P., Henjes, J, Klaas, C. and Smetacek, V. (2007). Mechanisms determining species dominance in a phytoplankton bloom induced by the iron fertilization experiment EisenEx in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I, 54, 340-362.
    45.  Henjes, J., Assmy, P., Klaas, C., Verity, P. and Smetacek, V. (2007a). Response of microzooplankton (protists and small copepods) to an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean (EisenEx). Deep-Sea Research I, 54, 363-384.
    46.  Henjes, J, Assmy, P., Klaas, C. and Smetacek, V. (2007b). Response of the larger protozooplankton to an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the Polar Frontal Zone of the Southern Ocean (EisenEx). Deep-Sea Research I, 54, 774-791.
    47.  Croot, P. L., Passow, U., Assmy, P., Jansen, S. and Strass, V. H. (2007). Surface active substances in the upper water column during a Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiment (EIFEX), Geophysical Research Letters, 34, doi:10.1029/2006GL028080.
    48.  Hoffmann, L. J., Peeken, I., Lochte, K., Assmy P. and Veldhuis, M.J.W. (2006). Different reactions of Southern Ocean phytoplankton size classes to iron fertilization. Limnology and oceanography, 51(3), 1217-1229.
    49.  Assmy, P., Henjes, J., Smetacek, V. and Montresor M. (2006). Auxospore formation by the silica-sinking, oceanic diatom Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE), Journal of Phycology, 42, 1002-1006.
    50.  De Baar, H. J. W., Boyd, P.W., Coale, K.H., Landry, M.R., Tsuda, A., Assmy, P., Bakker, D.C.E., Bozec, Y., Barber, R.T., Brzezinski, M.A., Buesseler, K.O., Boye, M., Croot, P.L., Gervais, F., Gorbunov, M.Y., Harrison, P.J., Hiscock, W.T., Laan, P., Lancelot, C., Law, C.S., Levasseur, M., Marchetti, A., Millero, F.J., Nishioka, J., Nojiri, Y., van Oijen, T., Riebesell, U., Rijkenberg, M.J.A., Saito, H., Takeda, S., Timmermans, K.R., Veldhuis, M.J.W., Waite, A.M. and Wong, C.-S. (2005). Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the Iron Age in the Age of Enlightenment, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 110. doi: 10.1029/2004JC002601.
    51.  Smetacek V., Assmy P., Henjes J. (2004). The role of grazing in structuring Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, Antarctic Science, 16 (4), pp. 541-558.

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